LESSON 2: ADVERTISING

LESSON 2: ADVERTISING

ENGLISH FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

LESSON 2: ADVERTISING

LESSON 2: ADVERTISING

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WARM UP ? THINK: Do you agree with the sentence below?

rys1

Look at the forum and add your own post.

Will all of us be immune to ads one day?

No… we aren’t nearly immune to ads… the average American is exposed to anywhere from 850 to 3000 ads per day… The entire point of an ad isn’t to make us go out and buy something right away (well some of them are) but rather, the ad sits in the back of our mind for a while until we decide to act on this information. It’s on a subconscious level and the advertising companies know this. If we were immune to ads, why would there 620 billion dollars a year be spent globally on advertising?

rys2

I think so , I rarely notice the ones here and I never read them

~

I am pretty immune already. I think as people get older and wiser then everyone will become immune.

~

my immune system is water proof, shock proof and ad proof.:)

~

I already am. If my subconscious isn’t, well, I don’t know what I can do about that. The ads will always be here to stay. That’s how business is run. It’s part of competition.


Have your say

Add your post and say if you are immune to ads or not.

Which posts do you agree with and why?


Vocabulary exercises: Complete the definition of advertising with the words from the box.

including encourage reassure drive
viable persuade commonly direct mail

 

 

Advertising is a form of communication used to or an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new action. Most , the desired result is to consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to employees or shareholders that a company is or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or ; or new media such as websites and text messages.

Click here, to see the key!

Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising

 


SPEAKING: Using the words in bold, from the previous exercise explain the notion of advertising.

READING: Read the text below.

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.

As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers.

As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called „quack” advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad – the copy, layout, and artwork – was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession.(…) In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business’ name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows.(…)

This practice was carried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons ? to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. (?)In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. (?) This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States.

EXERCISES ? UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT

Exercise 1: Build the questions to the text and answer them.

Question

1. What / advertise / the / in /ancient /times / people? (Simple Past)

Answer

Question

2. What / popular /of / was / in / form / the / Middle Ages / advertising?

Answer

Question

3. In /the / advertising / first / which / paid / was / included / country / in a newspaper?

Answer

Question

4. Who / do / what / Volney B. Palmer / and / was / did / he?

Answer

Question

5. What / in / 1920s / the / early / happened ?

Answer

Question

6. What / and early 50s / practice / over/ carried / commercial / to television / in the late 1940s /was ?

Answer

Click here, to see the key!

  1. What did people advertise in the ancient times?
  2. What form of advertising was popular in the Middle Ages?
  3. In which country the first paid advertising was included in a newspaper?
  4. Who was Volney B. Palmer and what did he do?
  5. What happened in the early 1920s?
  6. What practice was carried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 50s?

Exercise 2: Put the events in the chronological order.

EVENTS ORDER
wall or rock painting for commercial advertising
advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded
paid advertising started to appear in newspapers
large amounts of space in various newspapers were bought at a discounted rate then the space was resold at higher rates to advertisers
usage of image associated with some forms of trade
sponsoring programs became popular in commercial television
advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England
radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers
Click here, to see the key!

EVENTS ORDER
wall or rock painting for commercial advertising 1
advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded 6
paid advertising started to appear in newspapers 4
large amounts of space in various newspapers were bought at a discounted rate then the space was resold at higher rates to advertisers 5
usage of image associated with some forms of trade such as 2
sponsoring programs became popular in commercial television 8
advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England 3
radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers 7

TYPES OF ADVERTISING – How do you think which feature matches which type of advertising.

a long-format is embedded a printed
located in public placed in a retail vehicle mounted
a form of promotion restricted to the most effective
affordable involved is distributed out of an office

Television advertising / Music in advertising

The TV commercial is generally considered mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product.

Infomercials

An infomercial is television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word „infomercial” combining the words „information” & „commercial”. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

Radio advertising

Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. Population.

Online advertising

Online advertising is a that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

Product placements

Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise’s character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo.

Press advertising

Press advertising describes advertising in medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics.

Billboard advertising

Billboards are large structures places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.

Mobile billboard advertising

Mobile billboards are generally billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes.

In-store advertising

In-store advertising is any advertisement store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP?Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.

Coffee cup advertising

Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that , café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East.

Television advertising / Music in advertising

This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti, air dancer’s and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces.

Celebrity branding

This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps’ contract with Kellogg’s was terminated, as Kellogg’s did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising

Click here, to see the key!

Television advertising / Music in advertising

The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product.

Infomercials

An infomercial is a long-format television television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word „infomercial” combining the words „information” & „commercial”. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

Radio advertising

Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. Population.

Online advertising

Online advertising is a that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

Product placements

Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise’s character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo.

Press advertising

Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics.

Billboard advertising

Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.

Mobile billboard advertising

Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes.

In-store advertising

In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP?Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.

Coffee cup advertising

Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office , café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East.

Television advertising / Music in advertising

This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti, air dancer’s and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces.

Celebrity branding

This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps’ contract with Kellogg’s was terminated, as Kellogg’s did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.

How do you think?

SPEAKING: Describe the types of advertising. Which ones are the most effective and which the least?

 

 

 

Name any examples of celebrity branding. What are its downsides?

Describe the pictures and label them with the names of different types of marketing. Using your own words, explain the different types of marketing.

Picture number 1.

image3



Picture number 2.

image4



Picture number 3.

image5



Picture number 4.

image6



Picture number 5.

image7



Click here, to see the key!

Picture 1 ? product placement

Picture 2 ? on-line advertising

Picture 3 ? In-store advertising

Picture 4 ? Coffee cup advertising

Picture 5 ? Celebrity branding

Picture 6- Street advertising